Category Archives: Netherlands

“Very Close and Secret”: The Looming Presence of Torture in the 16th Century

In Late Medieval Europe, torture gradually replaced the ordeal (trial by fire, water, or battle) as the chief investigative method in criminal law. At the same time professional judges educated at universities took over from honourable laymen, and with them … Continue reading

Posted in John Dudley, letters, Netherlands, Robert Dudley | Tagged , , , ,

Jewels and ‟Such Other Pretty Stuff‟: Robert Dudley Goes Shopping

Robert Dudley’s personal tastes were hardly more extravagant than those of his fellow noblemen, except that Queen Elizabeth expected her ‟honorary consort“ to dress magnificently.1 Thus, when the earl celebrated the Feast of the Order of St. Michael at Warwick … Continue reading

Posted in Elizabeth I, letters, Netherlands, Robert Dudley | Tagged , , , , , | 3 Comments

The Governor-General’s Appearance

In July 1584 the Prince of Orange was murdered. A year later Antwerp fell to the Spaniards; the Protestant cause was seriously in danger, and an English intervention in the Netherlands seemed inescapable, even to the reluctant Elizabeth. There was … Continue reading

Posted in Netherlands, paintings, Robert Dudley | Tagged , , | 2 Comments